Image source: http://idsc.nih.go.jp/kansen/k03/k03_012/kansen_02.png
Bacteria; Spirochaetes; Spirochaetes (class); Spirochaetales; Leptospiraceae; Leptospira; Leptospira interrogans; Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai
Bacteria; Spirochaetes; Spirochaetes (class); Spirochaetales; Leptospiraceae; Leptospira; Leptospira interrogans; Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni
Chromosome 1: 4,332,241 bp
Chromosome 2: 358,943 bp
Chromosome 1: 4,277,185 bp
Chromosome 2: 350,181 bp
Leptospira is an aerobic spirochete, the cause of the harmful disease Leptospirosis, which affects many animals and humans.
L. interrogans serogroup Icterhaemorrhagiae consists of a 4.33 megabase large chromosome and a 359 kilobase small chromosome, totaling 4,768 predicted genes. A series of genes have been discovered that could potentially be related to adhesion. This genome differs from the two other pathogenic spirochaetes (Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi), though some similar genes are visible (CHGC, 2004).
Leptospira cells elongate as they grow, closing off the fresh ends. Sometimes when under nutritional stress, leptospires over 50 ?m long may fail to separate and create elongated chains of leptospires. Leptospira organisms are chemoorganotrophs, using O2 as the electron receptor. Long-chain fatty acids are the sole major energy source, derived through ?-oxidation, though they cannot be synthesized. Sugars cannot be used as a source for carbon, though carbohydrates can be synthesized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle (B. Adler et al., 2004).
Leptospira is a unique pathogen because of its ability to grow at temperatures as low as 11-13°C, though the optimum growth temperature is still between 28°C and 30°C. Leptospira grows best at pH levels between 7.2 and 7.6, preferring an alkaline habitat to acidic (B. Adler et al., 2004). Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira, is found most frequently in tropical or temperate climates (CDC, 2003).
Leptospirosis, a potentially deadly disease, is caused by the the spirochete Leptospira. Leptospirosis affects both humans and animals, causing a wide range of symptoms in both. In humans, typical symptoms can include fever, headaches, chills, sore muscles, vomiting, jaundice, red eyes, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or rashes. Leptospirosis can become considerably dangerous if not treated, potentially leading to kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, and respiratory problems. Leptospirosis is typically contracted by humans through water, food, or urine contact with an infected animal (CDC, 2003). It is currently speculated that about one third of infected humans contract Leptospirosis through contact with dogs and about one third from contact with rats (Mar Vista Vet, 2004).
Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, 250 Bi Bo Road, Zhang Jiang High Tech Park, Shanghai 201203, China.
Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. email@example.com
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